These principles below helps one make good use of his time.

The principle of V (t) = E (K + S) ± e. 
This principle denotes that the value of time derives from the efficiency showed by an individual (whereby this efficiency lies in the amount of knowledge and skills one has and how s/he can fully utilize these resources without wasting them) plus or minus the level of experience s/he has in a particular subject.
Hence; V = value
t = time
E = efficiency
k = knowledge
s = skills
e = experience
Experience is a good tool which can definitely add up to a persons’ expertise and demand in various fields but it can also be a challenge especially when it comes to the ever changing universe as almost everything is going digital. In this case, most of the old people with much experience gained during the analogue period find it difficult to catch up with the new era whereby things are being done digitally. This factor tends to rule out the level of experience they might have hence lowering the value of their time.
In this example, most companies would scout for people who can easily adapt to new trends in the market for employability other than holding on to old people who have difficulties in learning new things. This is brought about by the fact that time is constant and we can’t invest our effort in it, however, we can find it much easier to invest in our efficiency, knowledge, skills and experience so as to increase the value of our time. Graphically, when focusing on your skills, efficiency and knowledge, the value of your time gets boosted. For every simple chance given, make sure that you do the best out of it so that, apart from just leaving a positive impact behind, you should also make sure that you have invested in your skills, knowledge and efficiency.
The principle of 3 multiplied by 8
This principle puts emphasis on how one has to utilize the 24 hours that makes up a complete rotation of the earth around its axis. To achieve something we must first plan for it prior so as to get the desired results. How we plan our time has a greater impact on how the results of the course will be. The principle of 3 multiplied by 8 states that the all the 24 hours that comes in a single day have to be divided into three parts. Each of the three parts is as significant as the other part for it plays its role which has a value in the circulation. All these parts are dependent and if well utilized, they greatly yield to the value of one’s time. Each of the 3 parts is assigned 8 hours in a day.
Part 1: 8 hours for sleep
Sleep is healthy to any living person and as recommended, one should have at least 8 hours of sleep per day. Your body needs sleep, just the same way it needs food and air to have the best functionality. Sleeping makes our minds and body feel relaxed and with such a healthy state of mind and body, our daily activities are enhanced. Excessive sleepiness, yawning, irritability and daytime fatigue are the obvious signs that one is not experiencing enough sleep. Lack of sleep can interfere with the central nervous system, immune system, respiratory system and even digestive system etc. It is said that artificial light contributes to increased cases of cancer and therefore recommended that sleep has to be done in total darkness.
Lack of sleep also referred to as sleep deprivation could make a person get into hallucination. Hallucination is a situation whereby one sees or hears things that do not really exist. This is also an effect caused by lack of sleep which eventually lowers the value of one’s time. On the contrary, getting enough sleep enhances conjugation, a state by which one can be able to make new statements (improvements) while asleep in regards to new thing s/he learnt during his active work, study or social time. In this case, sleep helps process new things learnt. This fact explains the point behind the sleep of new born babies. Enough sleep can help one by being more efficient during his working time and this increases the value of one’s time.
Part 2: 8 hours for personal engagements
This is another important part of the 24 hours that we have in a day. Personal engagements are a very vital part of our lives as no man can do things perfectly on his own. We definitely need time to socialize with friends and family. Time to do thing we like the most; time to enhance our spiritual life, some people like cooking, others like swimming, while others like playing football etc. All these are personal engagements and they greatly enhances our lives and also increases the value of our time. While engaging in personal activities, we tend to freshen up our minds in situations where we have been bothered by life happening. In this case we tend to let go of all those bad encounters and start doing something new which definitely enhances the value of our time other than being stuck in thing that won’t yield positively to our time.
Part 3: 8 hours for work and study.
It is through work that our life gets enhanced, however, we need skills and knowledge for us to work efficiently and effectively. These are the main aspects that defines who we are in terms of yielding to the value of our time. Well, we can’t get the skills and knowledge we need to be efficient in a given field of work without gaining the required education in the same. For us to get education, we must take our time to study in length about that which we need to get knowledge and skills about. This knowledge and skills doesn’t necessarily need to be acquired in a class platform. Although education is intensely believed to be something acquired from a class platform having been taught by an instructor, we can as well learn from anything or anyone in our environs. We can personally take our time to research on anything we need to know and with passion everything is possible. Whereas this seemed to be a difficult task to carry out in the ancient times, the digital era has made everything easy for us as we all can have any information we need at any time of the 24 hours we have and this translates to the knowledge we need in carrying out our days’ activities. This knowledge when put into action transforms to skills which therefore helps us to be efficient and effective in our duties. By doing this, we tend to build up our experiences in given fields. While working in any given field, we tend to gain more skills and knowledge in line with that given field of work hence all this leads to our growth and experiences in life. To this, study and work goes hand in hand; we study to work and work to study. This 8 hours activity helps add up to the value of our time.
The principle of the 25th hour
Time is a limited resource. As waters of the great rivers and lakes constantly flows, so does time. Time waits for no man, it comes and goes and whenever wasted it can never be recovered at any cost. Managing time is something that we all need to learn and embrace for it is a golden gift that can never be found back once lost.
While it may seem to be very cheap for most people to get stuck in the constant litany phrase that “I have no time”, it really makes a big difference when a wise man utters this four ‘worded’ sentence for it is a very significant sentence in his life as it add up to the value of his time. This simple statement transforms the 24 hours of a wise man to 25 hours instead. It might sound funny.
Well, we normally say that “I have no time” yet we can always find time to do things we love the most. This is the 25th hour – the time related to our passion. Time that can greatly add up to one’s value if well utilized. If we can only sacrifice doing the things of passion we like doing during our free time and find a way of investing in this little opportunity in a better way, we can definitely see the good part of the constant litany about time in our life. As stated earlier, we can reduce the amount of work we do on a daily basis by half when we get enough sleep. For instance, we all have 8 hours for work and study, this time can be reduced to half by having enough sleep. Enough sleep helps our mind relax hence allowing us to work more efficiently and at a greater pace. In this case we might end up sparing, let’s say, 1 or 2 hours of the 8 hours. Well, what we do with the 1 or 2 hours spared from the 8 working hours will have a great significance in the value of our time. We always have some off-duty time throughout our life. This is also an opportunity of investing in our value. How we go about utilizing the extra time we get in our lives contributes a big deal in the value of our time. Any extra time we get in day or a week all equates to the 25th hour.
The principle of “E” for energy
This principle emphasizes on the time behavioral change of a person’s energy on a daily basis. There is a time of the day someone might feel very active and other times s/he might feel very weak and lazy. When a person in much active they tend to work perfectly well since they have full energy in their bodies. On the contrary, there comes a time of lethargy, a time when one feels generally weak and tired. This is the time when one doesn’t have energy to carry out his/her duties efficiently.
In its best, this principle shows us to manage our energy lever against the tasks we have in hand. This is a graphical concept signifying that the amount of energy needed to perform a given duty runs against time. We have to put in more efforts in our duties at times when we feel like our bodies have energy. Energy behaviors in our bodies differs from an individual to another depending on nutritional factors, time of the day, change in attitude/moods etc.
This principle denotes that when we carry out our duties at the time of the day when we feel more energetic, the value of our time gets boosted.

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  • Introduction and causes of Trauma
Life instances are inevitable. These instances can either be positive or negative. In most cases a sizeable number of people forecasts only for the positive side of an event/situation as an outcome. And this is nature. Although we might all have this tendency, it is also wise to put into consideration the challenges that might get across our schema. Bearing up under such circumstances betters our lives physically, psychologically and emotionally.
We most probably have lost our loved ones, relationships, money, a job and cases in courts while fighting for justice among other vital things that used to enhance our lives. A lot of people have been in accidents, rape assaults and most definitely all of us have been sick at some point in our lives. All these are adverse events and as they transpires we tend to go through pain, suffering and sorrow and if not well managed, these conditions tend to lower our performance.
Well, before getting to the insight of the topic, Trauma, fixing its meaning will definitely mark a good kick-off. Trauma is a severe shock caused by an unpleasant experience or the experience that causes this feeling. It is a tragedy causing a prolonged shock to someone. Trauma causes anxiety, distress, pain, suffering and sorrow among other painful or distressing emotions. As highlighted earlier, cases bringing about loss such as death, accidents, sicknesses, job terminations, money/security, rape etc all leads to someone being traumatized. The most tragic and inevitable event that is mostly experienced in life is death.
What happens after losing your beloved ones? On receiving a death announcement, it is very difficult for one to put along with it. At first we tend to think of it as some prank or rather a sort of some nightmare. On verification we are often left with thousands of questions running through our mind. All these implies a state of denial which can definitely lead someone to depression. For instance, when our loved ones depart from us for good we will probably not be ready to accept the fact that they are gone. At first our hopes tend to come to a halt depending on the schema we had from these people. Perhaps the deceased is the person whom we thought would come to rescue us or good enough do something significant in our lives. Loosing someone that we definitely hoped that he/she would fill a certain gap in our lives makes us feel down casted, a state that might take an unpredicted period of time as we see no other person who can fully replace the gap left by the deceased. Like for example losing a parent(s) only mean that we can never find someone as better as them. Losing a most trusted and reliable friend will also leave a very big gap which might never be filled since there exists no one who can take after another person fully. This explains why we all have different and very crucial talents. Although these talents might be closely related, no one talent is completely similar to the other.
Most often we hear or rather experience people getting out of relationships. This is not a new occurrence to most of us. We definitely have been through this at some point. What happens after this scenario? When relationships come to an end we get to state of denial. An intimate relationship is one of the most special things we all need in our lives without which our lives feels lonely. As they say, no man/woman is an island and we probably need each other. When in an intimate relationship we always opens up to our partner. This makes us to understand each other to a certain depth that not even our parents or siblings can get conversant with. This makes us feel special. Spending time with such people makes us experience a small heaven on earth. We make promises and get to share our dreams with each other etc. The discussions we normally have with our intimate partners keeps us moving on as they becomes part of our lives. This does not mean that we cannot live without them but they make quite an important part in our lives. So when relationships gets to an end we find a difficult time in trying to accept the change and move on. Thinking about the great times we shared together, the promises and visions we had, time and other resources we wasted in that relationship(s), we most likely feel traumatized. Even though we might finally get over the relationship(s), it is definitely not easy to get over the trauma.
Another loss that most people gets into is loss of security. About loss of security, we are going to view it from different forms. For example, on a fine dawn Joseph got up early to exercise his daily tasks that allows his loose ends meet. He locked his door as usual and confirmed his house and all in it is safe after which he made his way out of the compound. During the day he had all his duties well fixed and as the sun started sinking slowly down the skies as it is his norm, Joseph had to travel back home. On getting to his compound he couldn’t believe his eyes. The main entry to his house was broken down, the entry flung open and his house had nothing in it. He at first thinks he is dreaming or well enough lost his way back home. But again on the other hand he’s been living there for quite a good number of years and he is fully convinced that this is his home. With a loud scream he falls backwards with his mouth wide open having nothing clearly coming out of it. His body generally gets weak and he cannot feel his being anymore. The loud screaming is heard by neighbors and it makes them come to his rescue. After some hours he slowly starts getting back to his realization and well he is still not believing what exactly transpired…….. Days after this instance he starts feeling like he has to relocate to a different place.
In a different scenario, Justin is assaulted sexually and good enough he recognizes the parties involved in this. He decides to report this case to the authorities trying to seek justice. The court building is quite kilometers from his residential area. He has to use a sizeable amount of cash every time he is travelling for the court hearing. Every time he gets to the court, the accused doesn’t show up. He is then forced to go back home feeling wasted and tired. Behind his back what cooks every time is unbelievable for the one accused has all what it takes to get favors from the judiciary. He tries following up this case for quite some time and he eventually let go as there is no action being taken by the authority.
In the two scenarios above, we find that after losing everything in the house, Joseph has a feeling that he should rather relocate to a different place. This feeling of relocation has been invoked with lack of personal security as he lost all the properties he had had in his house. In the second scenario, Justine finds it difficult to trust in the judiciary as it seems not concerned about his pains and sorrows. The judicial authority is meant to offer security to the offended but in Justine’s nothing like justice happened. This is also a form of insecurity. Justine also lost a lot of money while trying to follow up the case. Money is a security in itself and using it on something that wouldn’t bear fruits then it becomes a loss as well as insecurity. Justine was sexually assaulted and no action was done to this. As they say, once bitten twice shy. Justine might never feel secure anymore while he comes across the scene of the act. All the discussed above are forms of insecurity which can cause trauma in people’s lives.
There are lots of incidences that causes trauma but of now the discussed few will definitely shade some light to the things that can cause trauma.
  • Effects of Trauma
Trauma, as any other thing we come across in our day to day events has got its effects. The effects of trauma are hostile to our health more than you can imagine. These effects of trauma are generally categorized to post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). This is quite a wide and a very interesting part though not everyone gets to this point, at least 25% of people involved in trauma belongs here. After being traumatized, quite a good number of people gets to a point where they find difficulties to sleep. Sleep is healthy to any living person and as recommended one should have at least 6 hours of sleep per day. Your body needs sleep, just the same way it needs food and air to have the best functionality. Sleeping makes our minds and body feel relaxed and with such a healthy state of mind and body, our daily activities are enhanced. Excessive sleepiness, yawning, irritability and daytime fatigue are the obvious signs that one is not experiencing enough sleep. Lack of sleep can interfere with the central nervous system, immune system, respiratory system and even digestive system etc.
Lack of sleep also referred to as sleep deprivation could make a person get into hallucination. Hallucination is a situation whereby one sees or hears things that do not really exist. This is also an effect caused by trauma especially in incidences of loss of life. After losing someone we really loved a times we even fear being left alone since we might start experiencing time ‘with them’ and this might make someone’s performance to get low.
Trauma can make someone to loose appetite. Having appetite is a good sign of being healthy as it makes someone to find food to eat. These food gives our bodies nutrients needed to enhance our growth and well-being. If we do not eat we generally get weak and become less functional due to lack of energy needed with our bodies so as to carry out our day to day activities. Lack food can eventually lead to death.
Lethargy is also as a result of trauma. Lethargy is a state of losing energy and enthusiasm. This can lead one to depression, decreased motivation or apathy. It can be overcome by leading a stress free life, having enough sleep, having good nutrition and doing physical exercises. Lethargy can cause poor performance if not well dealt with.
  • Dealing with Trauma
PTSD is generally caused by traumatic events. Some people get to PTSD as a result of genetic factors. This explains why some individuals develop PTSD as a result of trauma exposure while others are resilient. Even though genetics are associated to PTSD, it only occupies but a small number of percentage in that case. Most people develop PTSD as a result of the situation. Here the situation at hand may be a factor. As we discussed earlier, as a result of loss we tend to get into a state of denial; this state may be the situation at hand which most probably might lead to PTSD. How we deal with trauma is the most important part that will define our way forward. We can deal with trauma in the following ways.
When we sense a situation that would most likely traumatize us, we can always find a way to keep off from that situation. Flight is a way of preventing something to happen to you, by fleeing we’ll most definitely keep ourselves from the trauma that could befall us.
The second way is by fighting back. This is also a way that can help us deal with trauma though not that much efficient as it may lead to more complications. While engaging in a physical fights, conflicts and confrontations, we stand a risk of being hurt even more. Though not all fights are physical, even the non-physical fights might also lead us into serious problems. Engaging in fights must be done in a more civilized way in that even after these fights we can always find a proper way of resolving the disputes associated with such.
Freezing is another appropriate way of dealing with trauma. Freezing is a situation by which one physically exists but does not engage in a conversation that might lead them in trauma thereafter. Freezing can be helpful especially when one is freshly provoked with a certain occurrence. It is most likely that one might respond in a much crueler manner which would make the situation even worse.
Reasoning is another way of dealing with trauma. While reasoning you get to dialogue and analyze the cause of the trauma. You can negotiate with the one responsible and find an appropriate solution to the situation. This is the most appropriate and civilized way to handle things that are likely to cause trauma.
The first three ways (fleeing, fighting and freezing) are both applicable to animals and human while the fourth way (reasoning) of dealing with trauma is only applicable to human since only humans have the capacity to reason and analyze a situation. We must always do something that will help us cope with trauma.
  • Trauma growth
After having a traumatic experience, we tend to get knowledge with which we can be liable in helping other people in trauma. When it gets to a point that one can be trusted to offer advice to someone in trauma, it is necessary to listen to the story of the one in trauma. This helps one to be well informed about the situation at hand and find a proper way to handle the situation. It is also good to find out the most appropriate way of approaching the one traumatized. This will make them feel that you care for them and it will definitely make them open up to you. While listening to their story try to challenge or reframing their take of the story. By looking at their story from a different angle, you will help them have a different view of their situation. And this might help them see the importance of living a healthy life even after being traumatized. You might also try solving the situation in a more spiritual way, that is, if the affected is spiritual. Doing this will make them look at the situation positively and realize that everything transpires purposely. All the steps above will help them have hope and regain the energy lost while in trauma.
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1. Don’t start with profundities. When I began my Happiness Project, I realized pretty quickly that, rather than jumping in with lengthy daily meditation or answering deep questions of self-identity, I should start with the basics, like going to sleep at a decent hour and not letting myself get too hungry. Science backs this up; these two factors have a big impact on happiness.

2. Do let the sun go down on anger. I had always scrupulously aired every irritation as soon as possible, to make sure I vented all bad feelings before bedtime. Studies show, however, that the notion of anger catharsis is poppycock. Expressing anger related to minor, fleeting annoyances just amplifies bad feelings, while not expressing anger often allows it to dissipate.

3. Fake it till you feel it. Feelings follow actions. If I’m feeling low, I deliberately act cheery, and I find myself actually feeling happier. If I’m feeling angry at someone, I do something thoughtful for her and my feelings toward her soften. This strategy is uncannily effective.

4. Realize that anything worth doing is worth doing badly. Challenge and novelty are key elements of happiness. The brain is stimulated by surprise, and successfully dealing with an unexpected situation gives a powerful sense of satisfaction. People who do new things―learn a game, travel to unfamiliar places―are happier than people who stick to familiar activities that they already do well. I often remind myself to “Enjoy the fun of failure” and tackle some daunting goal.

6. Buy some happiness. Our basic psychological needs include feeling loved, secure, and good at what we do. You also want to have a sense of control. Money doesn’t automatically fill these requirements, but it sure can help. I’ve learned to look for ways to spend money to stay in closer contact with my family and friends; to promote my health; to work more efficiently; to eliminate sources of irritation and marital conflict; to support important causes; and to have enlarging experiences. For example, when my sister got married, I splurged on a better digital camera. It was expensive, but it gave me a lot of happiness.

8. Exercise to boost energy. I knew, intellectually, that this worked, but how often have I told myself, “I’m just too tired to go to the gym”? Exercise is one of the most dependable mood-boosters. Even a 10-minute walk can brighten my outlook.

10. Take action. Some people assume happiness is mostly a matter of inborn temperament: You’re born an Eeyore or a Tigger, and that’s that. Although it’s true that genetics play a big role, about 40 percent of your happiness level is within your control. Taking time to reflect, and making conscious steps to make your life happier, really does work. So use these tips to start your own Happiness Project. I promise it won’t take you a whole year.

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Here are some tips for a successful transition into community living:

  • Get to know your neighbors.  You need to know more than just the names and hometowns of the folks living on your neighbourhood.  Ask questions. Learn about everyone on the area, not just folks you connect with immediately. It helps to know about their experiences prior  to understand the perspective someone brings and how or why they may behave in a particular way.  Making a request of someone you have developed a relationship with is easier than requesting something from someone you would consider a stranger.
  • Talk directly about your needs.  You have a responsibility to speak up for yourself. You may keep your expectations or needs to yourself at first thinking you don’t want to “start off on the wrong foot.”  You might mention to your RA, or text your best friend, or vent to a family member that someone two doors away returns to the hall at 2:00 a.m. every morning, slams the door, and wakes you up. Behavior will not change if someone is not aware of the impact the behavior is having on someone else.  Talk to your neighbor directly during the day and not when you are in the height of your emotional reaction!
  • Be reasonable with your requests.  Living in community is not only about your needs. Prior, you may have experienced absolute silence at bedtime or a bathroom in impeccable condition at all times.  In a residence hall, there may be noise in a lounge or hallway, and students who aren’t impacted by the same level of noise as you are. We recommend talking directly to the person who is slamming the door each night as s/he may be unaware they are waking you up. If the person is unreasonable or unwilling to try and close the door more quietly, consult your RA for additional brainstorming.


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